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Golf Fuel Vitamins & Focus Drinks

Phosphatidylserine

  1. Burke, E. and Fahey T., Phosphatidylserine (PS):Promise for athletic performance. New Canaan, Ct. Keats Publishing, 1998.
  2. Crook, T., et al., “Effects of phosphatidylserine in age associated memory impairment,” Neurol 1991, 41:644-649. 
  3. Palmieri G., et al., “Double-blind controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in subjects with senile mental deterioration,” Clin. Trails J. 1987, 24:73-83.
  4. Monteleone, P., et al., “Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men,” Eur. J. Clin. Pharamacol. 1992, 41: 385-388.
  5. Monteleone, P., et al., “Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine responses to physical stress in humans,” Neuroendocrinol. 1990, 52: 243-248.
  6.  Fahey,et al., “The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of resistive exercise-induced overtraining. Biol Sport. 1998, 15:135–144.
  7. Griffin J, Ojeda S. Textbook of endocrine physiology, 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  8. Simmons, et al., “Increased proteolysis: an effect of increases in plasma cortisol within the physiological range,” J Clin Invest. 1984, 73 : 412-420.
  9. Baumeister J., et al. “Influence of phosphatidylserine on cognitive performance and cortical activity after induced stress,” Nutr Neurosci 2008, 11 (3): 103-110.

L-Tyrosine

  1. Deijen JB, et al., “Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course,” Brain Res Bull (1999) 48 (2) :203-209.
  2. Neri DF, et al., “The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness,” Aviat Space Environ Med (1995) 66 (4) : 313-319.
  3. Salter CA. “Dietary tyrosine as an aid to stress resistance among troops,” Mil Med (1989) 154 (3) : 144-146.
  4. Owasoyo JO, et al., “Tyrosine and its potential use as a countermeasure to performance decrement in military sustained operations,” Aviat Space Environ Med (1992) 63(5): 364-369.
  5. Deijen JB, Orlebeke JF, “Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress,” Brain Res Bull. (1994) 33 (3):319-323.

DMAE

  1. Osvaldo RE.  “2-Dimethylaminoethanol (Deanol): a brief review of its clinical efficacy and postulated mechanism of action,” Curr Ther Res 1980; 18: 1238-42.
  2. Fisman M, Mersky H, Helmes E. “Double-blind trial of 2-dimethylaminoethanol in Alzheimer’s disease,” Am J Psychiatry. 1981 138(7):970-2.
  3. Zahniser NR, Chou D, Hanin I. “Is 2-dimthylaminoethanol (deanol) indeed a precursor of brain acetylcholine? A gas chromatographic evaluation,” J Pharmacol Exp Ther . 1977;200:545-559.
  4. Davydova NG, et al., “[Effects of nootropic agents on visual functions and lacrimal antioxidative activity in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma],” Vestn Oftalmol. 2006 122 (6 ):42-45.
  5. Bonavita E. “[Neuropsychological study of the senile brain during and after single and combined treatment with deanol and citicoline],” Clin Ter. 1986 117(5):387-98.

Huperzine A

  1. Sun, Q, et al. “Huperzine-A capsules enhance memory and learning performance in 34 pairs of matched adolescent students,” Zhongguo-Yao-Li-Xue-Bao. 1999 20(7): 601-603
  2. Gordon, R K, et al., “The NMDA receptor ion channel: a site for binding of Huperzine A,” J-Appl-Toxicol. 2001 21 Suppl 1: S47-51
  3. Shang, Y Z, et al., “Improving effects of huperzine A on abnormal lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase in aged rats,” Zhongguo-Yao-Li-Xue-Bao. 1999 20(9): 824-828
  4. Wang, X D, et al., “Modulation of NMDA receptor by huperzine A in rat cerebral cortex,” Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999 20(1):31-35
  5. Ye, J W, et al.,”Improving effects of huperzine A on spatial working memory in aged monkeys and young adult monkeys with experimental cognitive impairment,” Pharmacol-Exp-Ther. 1999 288(2): 814-819.
  6. Shi Q, et al., “Huperzine A ameliorates cognitive deficits and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of rats exposed to acute hypobaric hypoxia,” Neurochem Res. 2012 37(9):2042-2052.

Bacopa

  1. Sangeeta R., et al. “Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment,” Indian J Psychiatry  2006  48(4): 238–242.
  2. Stough C., et al. “Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial,” Phytother Res. 2008 Dec;22(12):1629-34.
  3. Stough C, et al. “The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects,” Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 156 (4):481-484.
  4. Das A, et al. “A comparative study in rodents of standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera and Ginkgo biloba: anticholinesterase and cognitive enhancing activities,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002 73(4):893-900.
  5. Singh M, et al.,“Neuroprotective mechanisms of the standardized extract of Bacopa monniera in a paraquat/diquat-mediated acute toxicity,” Neurochem Int. 2013 62(5) : 530-539.

Ginkgo Biloba

  1. Birks J,et al. “Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007 (2):CD003120.
  2. Carlson JJ, et al. “Safety and efficacy of a ginkgo biloba-containing dietary supplement on cognitive function, quality of life, and platelet function in healthy, cognitively intact older adults,” J Am Diet Assoc 2007  107(3):422-432.
  3. Lovera J, et al. “Ginkgo biloba for the improvement of cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” Mult Scler 2007 13(3):376-385.
  4. Napryeyenko O, et al., “Ginkgo biloba special extract in dementia with neuropsychiatric features. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial,” Arzneimittelforschung 2007;57(1):4-11. .
  5. Defeudis F., et al. “Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) and CNS functions: basic studies and clinical applications,” Curr Drug Targets. 2000 1(1):25-58.

Phenylalanine

  1. Wahlstrom D, et al., “The effect of acute tyrosine phenylalanine depletion on emotion-based decision-making in healthy adults,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013 105:51-57.
  2. Wood DR, et al.,“Treatment of attention deficit disorder with DL-phenylalanine,” Psychiatry Res. 1985 16(1):21-26.
  3. Beckmann H, et al.,“[DL-phenylalanine as an antidepressant. Open study (author’s transl)],” Arzneimittelforschung. 1978;28(8):1283-1284.
  4. Beckmann H, et al.“Dl-phenylalanine in depressed patients: an open study,” J Neural Transm. 1977; 41 (2-3): 123-134.
  5. Reuss S, et al., “Phenylalanine and UVA for Vitiligo patients: probability of an effective treatment,” Med Hypotheses. 2006 67(1):199-200.

Taurine

  1. Huxtable RJ “Physiological actions of taurine,” Physiol Rev. 1992  72(1):101-163.
  2. Bouckenooghe T, et al., “Is taurine a functional nutrient?” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006 9(6):728-733.
  3. Szymański K., et al. “[Taurine and its potential therapeutic application],” Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2008 62:75-86
  4. Kendler BS “Taurine: an overview of its role in preventive medicine,” Prev Med. 1989  (1):79-100.
  5. Birdsall TC “Therapeutic applications of taurine,” Altern Med Rev. 1998 (2):128-136.

UJS

Cetyl Myristoleate (CMO) References

  1. Barathur R., et al., “Cetylated fatty acids improve knee function in patients with osteoarthritis,” J Rheumatol. 2002 29 (8):1708-1712.
  2. Diehl HW, et al., “Cetyl myristoleate isolated from Swiss albino mice: an apparent protective agent against adjuvant arthritis in rats,” J Pharm Sci. 1994 83 (3):296-299.
  3. Barathur R, et al. A fatty acid ester complex (CMC) improves quality of life outcomes in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. FASEB J 2001;15:A265.

  4. Siemandi H. “The effect of cis-9-cetyl myristoleate (CMO) and adjunctive therapy on Arthritis and Auto-Immune Disease,” Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients 1997 Aug/Sep; 58-63.
  5. Gault RA, et al., “Synthesis of cetyl myristoleate and evaluation of its therapeutic efficacy in a murine model of collagen-induced arthritis,” Pharmacol Res. 2003  47(1):43-47.